How is steel produced?
steel production and steelmaking methods improved considerably with the onset of the need for industrial production in the late 1800s. However, the New methods still rely on the use of oxygen to reduce the carbon content in the iron.
Today, steelmaking uses recycled, scrap materials, as well as traditional raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone. steel producers Steel is generally produced in two ways, basic oxygen steelmaking and electric arc furnaces, these methods are used in almost all in steel mills is used.
Let's examine steel production as a few steps:
The first step, iron production, includes the raw inputs of iron ore, coke and lime smelted in blast furnaces. Molten iron, also called hot metal, still contains 4-4.5 percent carbon and other impurities that make it brittle.
There are two main methods of first stage steel production: (Basic Oxygen Furnace, BOF) and more modern (Electric Arc Furnace, EAO) methods. BOF methods add recycled scrap steel to molten iron in a mixing furnace.
At high temperatures, oxygen is pumped through the metal at high speed, reducing the carbon content to 0-1.5 percent. However, the EAO method combines recycled steel scraps using high-power electric furnaces (temperatures up to 1650 C) to melt the metal and transform it into high-quality steel.
Second-stage steelmaking involves the processing of molten steel, or liquid steel, produced by both the BOF and EAO methods to adjust the steel composition. This is done by adding or removing certain elements and/or manipulating the temperature and production environment. Depending on the types of steel desired to be obtained, the following second stage steelmaking processes can be used:
- to mix up
- bucket injection
- gas reduction
- Composition adjustment by argon foaming sealed with oxygen blowing
Continuous casting is the pouring of molten steel into molds, in which a thin layer of steel is poured into a cooled mold so that it solidifies. The solidified steel is withdrawn using rollers. During rolling, the Steel is completely cooled and solidified. Cut to desired lengths depending on the application; It is made into sheets for flat products and into billets for long products. At this stage, the width of the molds into which the liquid steel is poured is important. If a flat sheet is produced, it should be poured into molds called slabs.
In the initial forming, the cast steel is then removed in various shapes, usually by hot rolling, to remove casting defects. Rolling is done to ensure the desired shape and surface quality. Hot rolled products are divided into flat products, long products, seamless pipes, rolling profiles or special products.
Steelmakers will finally take the steel into its final shape by rolling techniques, where it gives the steel its final shape and properties. These techniques include:
- Forming below the metal's recrystallization point (cold rolling) affects the mechanical change.
- Plated (galvanized) if requested
- Surface treatment