How is stainless steel produced? 2022

How Is Stainless Steel Made?

Stainless steelIt is an alloy of iron with additional elements such as chromium, nickel, silicon, manganese, nitrogen and carbon. The properties of the final alloy can be fine-tuned by varying the amounts of various elements.

Chromium Stainless steel The Importance of Doing

Chromium is essential for the manufacture of stainless steel; In fact, there is no viable alternative. Chromium is a hard, corrosion resistant transition element that gives stainless steel its corrosion resistance. In general, the higher the chromium content, the more corrosion resistant the steel is.

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Stainless sheet production

Stainless Steel Fabrication process

Steel Melting

The raw materials are melted together in an electric arc furnace. It may take 8 to 12 hours until the metal melts.

Removal of Carbon Content

The next stage is to remove the excess carbon. This is done by processing the molten metal in an AOD (Argon Oxygen Decarburization) converter. The converter reduces carbon by injecting an oxygen-argon mixture. At this stage, the AOD can add other alloying elements such as nickel and molybdenum to the converter.

Alternatively, a VOD (Vacuum Oxygen Decarburization) converter can be used when a very low carbon content is required.

Most Stainless steel has strict quality requirements. The tuning process allows for fine adjustments in the chemical composition. Adjustment is when the steel is mixed slowly to remove unwanted elements and increase bulk while defending desired compositions within temperature limits.

forming

Now molten steel is poured into forms. These forms can be flowers (rectangular shapes), logs (round or square shapes), plates, rods or tubes.

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hot rolling process

hot rolling

Hot rolling comes into the field at a temperature above the crystallization temperature of the steel again. The net temperature depends on the desired grade of stainless steel. Steel forms are heated and passed through high rollers. Bloom and billet occur in the form of rods and wire. Sheets are formed in plates, strips and sheets.

Cold Rolling

Cold rolling is used where extremely precise dimensions or an attractive finish are needed. The process takes place below the recrystallization temperature of the steel. Cold rolling is accomplished using small diameter rolls and a series of supporting rolls. This process allows the manufacture of large sheets with improved surfaces.

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steel annealing process

steel annealing

annealing, Stainless steel It is the process used to soften, increase ductility and improve grain structure. Meanwhile, it is used to relieve internal stresses in the metal from previous processes. During the annealing process, the steel is heated and cooled under controlled conditions.

Steel debarking

The annealing process opens the door to the formation of scales on the steel. These scales are often removed using pickling, which involves washing the steel in nitric-hydrofluoric acid. Electrocleaning is an alternative method that uses electric current to remove the balance.

Cutting

Stainless steel can now be cut to desired length. Mechanical cutting is the most common method. It can be cut straight with stainless steel guillotine blades, the circle cut with circular blades can be cut by cutting with high-speed blades, or cut by punch punch. Other methods include flame cutting, which uses a flame-powered torch powered by oxygen, propane, and iron powder, or Plasma Jet cutting, which uses an ionized gas column with an electric arc to cut metal.

For stainless steel products, surface quality is important, especially in applications where appearances are important. While most people are familiar with the look of stainless steel used for consumer products, there are actually a number of finishing options available.

Grinding wheels or abrasive belts are commonly used to grind or polish steel. Other ways include polishing with cloth wheels with abrasive particles, dry etching using sandblasting, and wet etching using acid solutions. Smooth surface provides better corrosion resistance.

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